Biggest take a ways from the 2019 UN report on Somalia

This summary is done by Mahad Wayah: According to the panel of experts on Somalia, Al-Shabaab remains the most immediate threat to peace and security in Somalia. Al-Shabaab manufactured its own home-made explosives for the first time in History. Al-Shabaab has infiltrated both private and public institutions and taxes throughout central and southern Somalia. for the last 10 years, Ethiopian State-owned Metals and Engineering Corporation sold weapons and ammunition to every regional administration in Somalia. Federal Government and member states commit Violations against civilians, Elections and financial irregularities.

FEDERAL GOVERNMENT OF SOMALIA AND IT’S MEMBER STATES:     

Elections: Southwest, Jubaland and Puntland held elections. the electoral process was marred by accusations of bribery, with members of the South-West State regional Parliament receiving between $20,000 and $30,000 to elect a preferred candidate. The Panel also obtained evidence that, prior to the South-West State election, several hundred thousand dollars were transferred to a South-West State cabinet official by a Federal Government financial clerk. In the south west elections, the Federal Government is accused of providing political and financial support to its preferred nominee, Abdiaziz Mohamed “Laftagareen which become the president elect. The security forces killed 15 civilians demonstrating the arrest of Mukhtar Robow, one of the candidates. Prior to the election, prominent South-West State Minister received transfers and South-West State Members of Parliament were given $20,000 to $30,000.

In the Jubaland elections, tensions erupted between Kenya and Ethiopia over the support by Kenya for incumbent President of Jubaland Ahmed Madobe. The Federal Government, international community and some local stakeholders expressed concerns over the process.
FINANCE:

Although significant progress made by The Federal Government in the public financial management but still corruption and financial mismanagement reported, for example An investigation by the Panel uncovered financial irregularities within  the Somali Civil Aviation and Meteorological Authority in relation to the collection of air navigation charges, in which the Authority wrote off a $5.8 million debt owed by Jubba Airways Limited without collecting the funds from the airline.

Al-shabaab generate domestic revenues through the “taxation” of all aspects of the Somali economy, taxing imports into Mogadishu port, mobile money and domestic banking services to and transfer revenues throughout the country.  Al-Shabaab routinely taxes trade, livestock and agricultural production through a series of checkpoints throughout central and southern Somalia, enforcing compliance through the threat of violence.

domestic production of charcoal is ongoing, stockpiles at Kismayo and Buur Gaabo stood at 600,000 to 900,000 bags with a wholesale industry value of approximately $30 to $45 million.

SECURITY SECTOR:  

Federal Government and federal member state police and military actors also committed violations against civilians. six men suspected of being a member of Al-Shabaab, executed in the town of Bardera, Gedo region. Puntland Security Force, a United States-trained and -supported counter-terrorism unit committed acts of  torture and inhumane and degrading treatment “the Panel identified several areas of concern regarding the prosecution of terrorism cases, including those of children, through Puntland’s military courts, such  as the use of confessions extracted under torture, lengthy pretrial detention, decisions issued without explanation, arbitrary sentences and limited rights to appeal”. Puntland remains the primary entry point for illicit arms into Somalia.

There were more than 20,000 federal member state forces that did not fall under Federal Government command and control structures. Federal Government forces failed to fill vacuums left by AMISOM such as Leego, Bay region, as well as the lack of adequate holding forces by the Federal Government of Somalia to secure the main supply routes. The Panel of Experts currently assesses that it is unlikely that the envisaged AMISOM withdrawal will be possible by 2021.

The Somali National Army captured the Lower Shabelle towns of Sabiid, Anole, Barire, and Awdheegle from Al-Shabaab – with assistance from AMISOM and the United States military – during the period from April to August 2019.  Ethiopian-backed militant Sufi group established in 1991, integrated into the federal security forces.

ALSHABAAB THREATS:

Al-Shabaab remains the most immediate threat to peace and security in Somalia. According to the panel of experts on Somalia, Since July of 2017, Al-Shabaab manufactured its own home-made explosives for the first time in History. The manufacture of home-made explosives means that the group may now have access to far more readily available inputs for the construction of such devices. Al-Shabaab’s infiltration of Federal Government institutions reached high.

The terror group still remains capable of carrying out conventional attacks against both Federal Government of Somalia and African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM). Al-shabaab still controls large territory, Al-Shabaab maintains direct control or influence in Somalia and cut off main supply routes and effectively isolate AMISOM- and government-controlled pockets.

Jilip is the capital city of Al-shabaab, controls most of the Juba Valley, including the major urban centers of Bu’ale, and Sakow. Kunyo Barrow in Lower Juba is the headquarters of Al-Shabaab’s finance department, and likely contains a significant proportion of the group’s physical cash reserves.

Al-Shabaab has carried out at least 11 improvised explosive device attacks in Somalia using home-made explosives. From July 2018 to July 2019, Al-Shabaab carried out 548 improvised explosive device attacks in Somalia, compared with 413 over the corresponding period the previous year, an increase of 32 per cent. There was also a 36 per cent increase in improvised explosive device incidents in Banadir region, which includes Mogadishu, over the same period.

Al-Shabaab has infiltrated Mogadishu’s port institutions as well as commercial shipping agents operating in the city. Consequently, Al-Shabaab has obtained access to cargo manifests, which detail the nature, value and ownership of imported goods.  all imports into Mogadishu port would from that point on be subject to Al-Shabaab taxation. Al-Shabaab demanded that Mogadishu businesses declare all imports to the group’s finance department prior to import, warning that all declarations would be corroborated by cross-referencing cargo manifests. the group’s court at Tortoroow resolves land disputes in Mogadishu mostly and have an ability to enforce its judgments because the state court is costly and corrupt.

The Panel’s investigation into al-Shabaab attacks also revealed an expansive and well-resourced Al-Shabaab network in the region.

ISIS:

December 2018, Somali national and ISIL affiliate Omar Moshin Ibrahim, also known as Anas Khalil, was arrested in Bari, Italy, in connection with a planned attack on the Vatican and other targets in Italy, The Vatican plot represents the first instance in which ISIL elements in Somalia were directly linked to an attempted terrorist attack outside the country.

FOREIGN SUPPORT:   

The Panel of Experts has obtained evidence that the Ethiopian State-owned Metals and Engineering Corporation – an engineering and arms manufacturing company based in Addis Ababa – systematically violated the arms embargo over the course of at least a decade. viewed Puntland and Somaliland as “sovereign states”, weapons and ammunition to every regional administration in Somalia, including at the district level. approximately $3.1 million and comprising 4,600 AK-pattern rifles, over 2 million rounds of AK-pattern ammunition, over 600,000 rounds of PKM ammunition, and over 70,000 rounds of 12.7mm ammunition, amongst others.

On 19 August 2019, Jubaland authorities forcibly prevented the landing of an aircraft carrying Ethiopian representatives at Kismayo airport, resulting in an armed standoff between Kenyan and Ethiopian troops at the airport. Kenya pro Ahmed Madobe while Ethiopia back the federal government. The Jubaland election still a standing issue.

The panel of experts report on Somalia give an in-depth analysis about the situations on the ground and full of open-source intelligence that one can learn more about what’s being hidden from the public.

https://undocs.org/S/2019/858

Summary done by Mahad Wayah
Mahadhassan045@gmail.com